Shannon Entropy of Various File Formats

In yesterday’s post, I introduced a tool ( that I created to visualize the frequency distribution of the bytes in a file.  For today, I will show the results of using this tool for a cursory examination of the Shannon entropy of various, common file formats.  This will illustrate benefits … Continue reading

Calculate File Entropy

Entropy is the measurement of the randomness.  The concept originated in the study of thermodynamics, but Claude E. Shannon in applied the concept to digital communications his 1948 paper, “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.”  Shannon was interested in determining the theoretical maximum amount that a digital file could be compressed. … Continue reading

GeoLocation in Python

When performing a security analysis, it is often desirable to know the country and sometimes even the city from where traffic is originating from.  There are a variety of websites, like,  that allow you to enter in an IP address and will report back the city and country as … Continue reading

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